Week 3 Lesson Plan Addendum

Start with ESD review

Review CPUs – form and fit function

Intel – Pentium 1-4

AMD – Athelon, Celeron

Explain how a CPU works with data and address bus using control wires

Explain how a CPU gets the attention of the device. Explain that the CPU considers every device nothing more than an address. To get the attention of a device, the CPU raises the address control line, all devices listen for their respective addresses, all others but the intended disregard, then communication is continued.

Explain why 32 bit architecture cannot easily be transferred to 64 bit architecture because of missing address bits. Explain why there are 32 wires going across the bus but only 28 or so are used in Windows.

Introduce other OS – UNIX – Torvald, and Linux, Mac, VMS – go into Y2K problems associated with 2 digits for the year.

Go into detail about memory grid and addressing

32 address wires means 4,294,967,296 addresses are available – all 32 wires in use – however windows uses 28 – the others are used for the control wires mentioned ealier.

Toolkit needs – loop back plugs, diagnostic disks, tools, meters, troubleshooting book, spare parts and cables (known good), and virus software.

Best way to upgrade – take old to store and get same speed and type just more of it.


Start the day with IRQ’s

IRQ 2 is rerouted from old mainframe controller port

Show slide show showing IRQ’s and their address association

Show Device Manager to show how to find IRQ usage in a computer.

Then introduce Troubleshooting methodology

Half split troubleshooting method

Divide the system in half and determine which half has the problem – for example is it internal or external. If internal – is problem in device or software – replace with known good parts to determine if hardware or software.

Continue to divide by half until you locate the source and culprit to be replaced.

Shotgun approach

Replace all components and motherboard before determining problem. Used when a system needs to get up and running in a hurry.

Straight line approach

Remove all items except the essentials – disconnect all unnecessary drives, devices, memory, etc. If problem goes away – then add items one at a time until problem reappears.

Troubleshooting notebook

Show example notebook about procedures

Should contain procedures for everything no matter how simple – such as cover removal – remind students how difficult it was for some of them to get it open – and how embarrassing it is when the boss is standing there watching you and you cant get the cover off… Humiliating indeed

Software diagnostic tools

Windows shows state of system using certain routines such as device manager – shown below

MSD is no longer available unless you download it or get from old version of windows – not very helpful but show MSD and load on a computer


Beginning Explanation of BIOS/POST

Basic Input Output System – different for each motherboard are not transferable but are swappable or reprogrammable in the case of FLASH

Show location on motherboard

Power on Self Test – checks to see what resources are available in the computer

Resources such as memory, disk drive, keyboard, mouse, etc.

Beep codes

After completion of Post, BIOS turns control over to Operating System. BIOS finds OS on disk and executes Master Boot Record from the disk. Loads and executes I/O.sys, then MSdos.sys, and then command.com in that order. Then OS initializes itself.


Form fit functions

AT, Baby AT, ATX, MicroATX, FlexATX,



Proprietary – Explain what proprietary means and how it may benefit a company or not vs Open Systems

Standards generation – Explain the need for standards and who gets to benefit or lose

Show motherboard explaining about support standoffs

SAFETY – ESD – bending solder runs – breaking component leads, etc.

Rest of day installing motherboards.

Basic Electronics


Watts - power

Volts – potential to move electrons

Amps – current – flow of electrons

Metal – easily deflected electrons because they have excess in outer orbit

Insulator – hard to move electrons because they absorb electrons

Test Equipment – voltmeter and amp meter

Draw circuit on board with switch

Power measurements


Outlet tester

Neutral – white larger pin

Hot – black smaller pin

Ground – green bottom half moon shaped pin

NOTE: voltage in US stays at 110 volts so adding components to a computer must increase the current usage and thusly the wattage of the power supply must increase.

AC – alternating current – George Westinghouse

DC – direct current – Thomas Alva Edison

Mention competition that Edison lost

Surge Suppressors

ESD – static electricity

UPS – Uninterruptible Power Supply

Battery back up systems

Power off split second – what occurs

EMI - Tempest