Networking II Lesson Plan Week 16 Addendum

Windows Internet Naming Service

Installing WINS

  1. The main points in this section are that:

    1. Windows Server 2003 can act as a WINS server.

    2. Multiple WINS servers can exist on a network.

    3. WINS is not automatically installed on a Windows Server 2003 installation.

Activity 8-1: Installing WINS

  1. This is a simple activity that involves the installation of the WINS server software on a machine running Windows Server 2003.

  2. This activity should pose no problems to students as it is just another exercise in adding Windows components.

Activity 8-2: Configuring a WINS Client

  1. It is important for students to realize that a computer acting as a WINS server must also be configured as a WINS client itself.

  2. If the server is not configured as a WINS client, then the NetBIOS names and IP address of the server will not be listed in the database and client computers will not be able to use NetBIOS resources on the servers.

  3. The most difficult part of this activity is to understand why a WINS server machine needs to be configured as a client. Performing the configurations is simply a matter of adding the IP address of your local area connection in the proper place.

Configuring WINS Replication

  1. Students need to realize that a single WINS server may be adequate for most networks as it can support at least 5000 clients. However, you will need to explain that it is sometimes advantageous to install multiple WINS servers on a network.

  2. Multiple WINS servers can provide increased network control and provide increased fault tolerance.

  3. It is very important for students to realize that when multiple WINS servers are configured, it is required that they also setup replication between them.

  4. There are three types of replications that students need to know. These are: push, pull, and push/pull replication.

  5. Push replication occurs based upon changes in a WINS database.

  6. Pull replication occurs after a specified interval of time.

  7. Push/Pull replication is a combination of push and pull replication.

  8. There is a tradeoff that students should realize exists between replication speeds and network traffic. Replication can be configured to use a persistent connection. This allows for faster replication speeds but increased network traffic.

Activity 8-3: Configuring Replication Partners

  1. Make sure students realize that they must have completed the previous two activities in order to successfully complete this one.

  2. This activity involves using the WINS snap-in under Administration Tools.

  3. Have students add a new replication partner and issue the replication command.

Managing WINS

  1. It should be explained to students that, in most cases, the default WINS configuration will be more than adequate in most network settings.

  2. This section briefly explains some of the options that can be configured for a WINS server. Briefly review each of the following WINS options to ensure students have a grasp over the options in case they are required in a network setting:

    1. how often statistics are updated on the server

    2. path for backing up the database

    3. whether or not the database is backed up at each shutdown of the system

    4. renewal interval

    5. extinction interval

    6. extinction timeout

    7. verification interval

    8. database verification options

    9. event logging

    10. burst handling

Viewing Database Records

  1. This section explains how to view WINS database records. Explain to students that they may wish to view such records in the case that verification of client registration is needed.

  2. This feature is best learned through experience. Have students view the database and search the records using the various search criteria offered by the software.

  3. An obscure term introduced in the section is tombstoned. If a record is deleted from all WINS servers, then the record was tombstoned.

Activity 8-4: Viewing WINS Records

  1. This is a quick and easy activity where students will use the WINS snap-in to view the WINS database records.

  2. The directions for this activity are very simple and should pose no problem to the students.

Adding Static Records

  1. Students should realize, after reading this section, that some computer systems on the network may not be able to automatically register themselves on the WINS server. In this case, you will have to manually add the record.

  2. Windows Server 2003 provides easy to use configurations in order to add the static record.

Activity 8-5: Adding a Static Mapping

  1. Students should be able to follow the instructions without too much difficulty.

  2. Remind students that the purpose of this activity is to statically create an entry in the WINS database for a system unable to be dynamically configured to use WINS.

Backing up the Database

  1. The concept of backing up information will not be foreign to students. Therefore, you will probably only need to explain the fact that you can backup the database and how it is done.

Activity 8-6: Backing up and Restoring the WINS Database

  1. The instruction list for this activity is a little longer than those of previous activities in this chapter. Make sure students read them carefully before beginning this exercise.

  2. This exercise involves setting the WINS server for an automatic backup, backing-up the database, deleting the database, and finally restoring the database.

Compacting the WINS database

  1. The important concept of this section is that there is potentially no bound to the size of the WINS database. Therefore, an administrator may need to compact the database.

  2. Ensure students know that compacting a WINS database will reduce the size of the database and increase performance.

  3. The two techniques for compacting include dynamic and offline compacting. The difference between the two stem from the fact that dynamic compacting is an automatic process while offline compacting is a manual one.

  4. Students need to know that the database is compacted offline through the jetpack utility. The WINS server must be stopped for offline compacting to work.

Activity 8-7: Compacting the WINS database

  1. This activity involves using the jetpack command line utility.

  2. Students will have no difficulty with this activity.

Removing WINS Servers

  1. Uninstalling the WINS service is easy. It is uninstalled through the Add/Remove Windows Components utility.

  2. Students may safely remove the WINS service if all the machines on the network consist of Windows 2000 or later computers.

Activity 8-8: Removing WINS

  1. Students will be performing two separate tasks in this activity. The first task is to remove the WINS service. The second is to remove the WINS client configuration so that the server is no longer a WINS client.

  2. The first part is easily achieved by removing the WINS Windows component.

  3. The second part is achieved through removing the WINS information from the TCP/IP settings.

  4. Students need to realize that removing such WINS information is only advisable if NetBIOS is not required on the network.

WINS Proxy

  1. If anything, ensure that students know that a WINS proxy is used for computer systems that are unable to use a WINS server in order to resolve NetBIOS names.

  2. A WINS proxy merely communicates with a WINS server for the system.

  3. Configuring Windows Server 2003 to act as a proxy server is a little more complicated then any previous configuration in this text as it involves modifying registry entries.

Teaching Tip

Modifying the registry for any Windows computer system is dangerous. Incorrect modifications can result in operating system malfunction or security issues. BACK UP THE REGISTRY BEFORE MAKING ANY MODIFICATIONS!

Troubleshooting WINS

  1. Troubleshooting a system is more of a matter of experience than anything else. Just because students read this section of the text, it will not make them proficient at troubleshooting WINS servers and clients.

  2. Most problems experienced with WINS are client-side as opposed to server-side.

Teaching Tip

If a test network of computers is available to the class, purposefully sabotage the network and have students attempt to repair it. This is the best way to learn how to troubleshoot a system.

Class Discussion Topics

  1. What is the point of a WINS server? Is there a better way to do the same thing?

  2. In what situations is a WINS server not required?

  3. WINS replication uses a combination of push and pull replication types. What parameters for push and pull replication is best for what situations?

  4. What is the main purpose of the jetpack command-line utility?

Additional Projects

  1. Suppose you are the administrator of a WAN network. The network already suffers from heavy traffic. Your boss is obsessed with efficiency and argues that the network should be configured to use persistent connections for WINS replication. Is this a good idea? Explain.

  1. Suppose your WINS server is receiving a very large amount of name registration requests. Also, assume you are not willing or capable to setup another WINS server. What option is available to the WINS server in order to try to increase the efficiency of the server to handle the large number of registration requests?

Solutions to Additional Projects

  1. Although persistent connections can increase replication times, it adds to the overall network traffic as a connection must be established between machines at all times. This will worsen traffic over an already slow network. Therefore, the persistent connection option may not be the best idea as it may degrade network performance.

  1. One potentially important feature of WINS servers is the burst handling capability. This feature allows WINS servers to handle large numbers of name registration requests in a short amount of time. The student may go into more detail as he or she sees fit. There may be other correct answers mentioned by students as well.